Job analysis refers to the process of studying and collecting information relating to the operations and responsibilities of a specific job. The immediate outcomes of this analysis are job descriptions and job specifications.
Job Description provides both organizational information (like position in structure, authority, etc.) and functional information (what the work is). It includes the scope of job activities, major responsibilities and positioning of the job in the organization. It gives the worker, analyst and supervisor a clear idea of what the worker must do to meet the demand of the job. It includes:
- Job identification or Organization Position: Includes the job title, department, division and plant and code number of the job. The job title identifies and designates the job properly. The department/division indicates the name of the department where it is situated and the location states the place or work.
- Job Summary: Additional identification information with a summary about that particular job.
- Job duties and responsibilities: A total listing of duties together with an indication of the frequency of occurrence or percentage of time devoted to each major duty; often regarded as the 'Hear of the Job'.
- Relation to other jobs: Job/s immediately below or above in the job hierarchy
- Supervision: Number of person to be supervised along with their job titles and the extent of supervision.
- Machine: Information about the tool, machines and equipment to be used.
- Working Conditions: Information about the environment in which the jobholder work
- Hazards: Nature of risks of life and limb, their possibilities of occurrence, etc.
Job Specification translates the job description into the human qualifications required for the job. It serves as a guide in hiring and job evaluation, and is usually drawn up by collaboration of the HR department and the line supervisors. It is a written statement of qualifications, traits, physical and mental characteristics that an individual must possess to perform the job duties and discharge responsibilities effectively and includes:
- Physical: They vary from job to job and include physical features like height, weight, vision, hearing, ability to lift weight, ability to carry weight, health, age, capacity to use or operate machines, tools, equipment, etc.
- Mental: These include ability to perform arithmetical calculations, interpret data, information blue prints, read electrical circuits, ability to plan, reading abilities, scientific abilities, judgment, ability to concentrate, ability to handle variable factors, general intelligence and memory
- Emotional and social: More important for managers and supervisors, these include emotional stability, flexibility, social adaptability in human relationships, personal appearance including dress and posture.
- Behavioral: Play an important role in selecting the candidates for higher-level jobs in the organizational hierarchy and describe the acts of managers rather than the traits. They include judgments, research, creativity, teaching ability, maturity, conciliation, self-reliance and dominance.